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Monday, February 15, 2016

4G

4G communication / 4G networks



LEARN ABOUT THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 1G , 2G , 3G , 4G . 




4G we all hearing this word now because 4G officially availible now for the user of  INDIA .
To understand the 4G we need to be familiaer with the techology terms of it. So in next lines i am going to explain about the 4G (which i learned from the internet)
MEGAHERTZ (MHz) this term is used to explain the frequncy band used in mobile communication .

To learn about 4G we need to understand the all G or ganaration.

"G or GENERATION present the DETAIL OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL IMPLIMENTATION OF PERTICULER MOBILE PHONE SYSTEM WHICH IS SET OF THE TELEPHONE NETWORK. "

·         1G
·         2G
·         3G
·         4G or LTE


1G 
 this is the first generation of mobile / wireless communication, in technical terms this technology is the ANALOG TECHNOLOGY. which introduced in india in startin of 20s .
The main technology behind this generation is AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System). this system is only voice system ( receiving of voice or transmitting of voice) .It works on the 800 MHz band width,
in this the 800 MHz RADIO is split into 395 voice channels and 21 controls channels via FDMA (each of 30 KHz)


 
1G phone
KEY POINTS
  • 1.       Range is 40 KMs.
  • 2.       2 Million users (in AUS)
  • 3.       It lasts till 1999
  • 4.       Because it has limitation of only transmission of voice so it need to be upgraded and the 2G introduced in the play .








2G

this generation is so efficient that it spreaded and become famous orldwide.
Mainly the drawbacks of the 1G's removed in this generation technicaly this is a DIGITAL system for the mobile communication. it removed the limitation of the range of the AMPS as in 1G and because its digital it is more secure from the noise and the enviromental disturbance.
It has more FEATURES


·         MMS
·         SMS
·         INTERNET OR DATA CONNECTION
·         SIM CARD (I'D of the user )
·         LONG RANGE COVRAGE etc.
2G 's performance is so good that it made the mobile communication very famaouse and after some time the network got a standard name GSM ( GLOBAMSYSTEM FOR MOBILE )
2G phone

KEY FEATURES
  • 1.       IT USE THE TDMA TECHNOLOGY FOR COMMUNICATION.
  • 2.       IT WORKS IN TWO BANDS 900MHz AND 1800MHz (which is divided into 124 channels of 200KHz  each caring the 8 slot of .577 micro second burst ( short time period for work or transmission)
  • 3.       IT USES THE 64 BIT STREAM.
  • 4.       DISADVANTAGE  OF THE SYSTEM IS ITs PACKET DATA SPEED IS SLOW , TO OVERCOME THIS THE CDMA(which means no TDMA ) AND EDGE IS INTRODUCED WHICH HAS MORE SPEED THEN NORMAL 2G .







3G 
It introduced in 2005 , the main advantage of the 3G is it has more faster data transmission speed.
KEY FEATURES
1.       IT USES 2100 MHz FREQUNCY BAND .
2.       ITs BASED ON UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) TECHNOLOGY WITH CDMA WHICH PROVIDE THE FASTER DATA TRANSMISSION. ( in UMTS technology HSPA and HSUPA is introduced)
3.       THIS GENERATION INTRODUCED THE WIDEBAND CDMA ( Better calculations then the genral CDMA )
4.       MAJOR  DIS ADVANTAGE IS IT HAS MORE ATTAUNATION AND LOW COVRAGE AREA.



4G OR LTE 
It introduced in 2011
This generation is also known as the LONG TERM EVOLUTION (3GGP) . Its a slight upgradation in the UMTS technology.
LTE is launched in the 1800 MHz frequency band  and still its ideal speed is 100 MBps for downloading (Base Station to User end) and 50 MBps for the uploading(Userend to Base station) . Lower latency ( 300 Micro seconds to 100 Micro seconds) .
LTE is launched in INDIA in
·          2300 MHz - 2400 MHz band [TD(time division)-LTE]  *ONLINE (currently active)
·         1800 MHz [FDD(frequency division duplex)-LTE], this band's auction is organised by the goverment but currently not activated by any of Service Providers. *OFFLINE  
LTE technology in INDIA is mainly divided into 2 topology
I.        LTE-FDD
II.      LTE-TDD
REASON OF HIGH SPEED IN 4G AS COMPARE TO 3G Is that ,LTE two beam or data streams are used to transmitt the data at the angle of 45 and 135 respectively.Which is known as MIMO (     multi input multi output) POLARIZATION.
it means that transmitter part contain 2 antenna to serve the speed od internet,in our basic mobile phones there are only one RECEIVING antenna so it can not be used for the 4G communication.

MIMO POLARIZATION

KEY FEATURES
·        MORE SPEED IN DATA TRANSFER.
·        LOWER LATENCY.
·        LOWER NETWORK CONGESTIONs.
·        REUSE OF 1800MHz FREQUENCY BAND WITH HIGHSPEED.
·        USE OF ADVANCED UMTS TECHNOLOGY.
·        MORE SECURITY IN THE NETWORK.

NEXT ARTICLE WILL ON UMTS. THANKS FOR READING. STAY TUNED .

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